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عنوان: The Scratch of a Pen: 1763 and the Transformation of North America (Pivotal Moments in American History)
مؤلف: Colin G. Calloway
مترجم: -
ناشر: Oxford University Press
سال انتشار: 2007
امتیاز آمازون:
تعداد صفحات: 240
شابک: 0195331273
شابک(13): 9780195331271
مشخصات: 224 p. : ill., maps.
رده بندی کنگره: E46
دیویی: 973.2'6
دیویی نرمال: 973.2
نوع فایل: PDF
حجم فایل: 5.89 مگابایت
قیمت پشت جلد: $10.85
قیمت خرید:

1500 تومان

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چکیده
In this superb volume in Oxford's acclaimed Pivotal Moments series, Colin Calloway reveals how the Treaty of Paris of 1763 had a profound effect on American history, setting in motion a cascade of unexpected consequences, as Indians and Europeans, settlers and frontiersmen, all struggled to adapt to new boundaries, new alignments, and new relationships.
Britain now possessed a vast American empire stretching from Canada to the Florida Keys, yet the crushing costs of maintaining it would push its colonies toward rebellion. White settlers, free to pour into the West, clashed as never before with Indian tribes struggling to defend their way of life. In the Northwest, Pontiac's War brought racial conflict to its bitterest level so far. Whole ethnic groups migrated, sometimes across the continent: it was 1763 that saw many exiled settlers from Acadia in French Canada move again to Louisiana, where they would become Cajuns. Calloway unfurls this panoramic canvas with vibrant narrative skill, peopling his tale with memorable characters such as William Johnson, the Irish baronet who moved between Indian campfires and British barracks; Pontiac, the charismatic Ottawa chieftain; and James Murray, Britains first governor in Quebec, who fought to protect the religious rights of his French Catholic subjects.
Most Americans know the significance of the Declaration of Independence or the Emancipation Proclamation, but not the Treaty of Paris. Yet 1763 was a year that shaped our history just as decisively as 1776 or 1862. This captivating book shows why.
Winner of the Society of Colonial Wars Book Award for 2006
 
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must read if interested in US



IF YOU HAVE IN INTEREST IN AMERICAN HISTORY THEN THIS BOOK IS A MUST READ. "THE SCRATCH OF A PEN" GIVES A WONDERFUL INSIGHT INTO THE EVENTS THAT TRANSPIRED FOLLOWING THE PEACE OF PARIS TREATY IN 1763. IT SHOWS THE ROLE AND INFLUENCE BRITAIN THEN HAD ON NORTH AMERICA AND THE INDIAN NATION AND SETTLERS THAT LIVED HERE. IT'S CLAIM THAT THE PEACE TREATY OF 1763 IS WHAT TRULY SHAPED WHAT OUR NATION WOULD BECOME IS EXQUISITELY BACKED UP BY THE EVIDENCE CALLOWAY GIVES. IT THEN BRINGS IT TO A PERSONAL LEVEL BY NOT JUST GIVING AN OVERVIEW BUT SHOWING HOW IT PERSONALLY AFFECTED AND CHANGED THE LIVES OF INDIVIDUALS. BRITAIN'S POWER AND INFLUENCE THAT WAS GAINED AFTER THE TREATY WAS BEARING DOWN HARD ON THE NATIVE AMERICANS AND IMMIGRANTS THAT WERE INHABITING THESE LANDS.
CALLOWAY IS ABLE TO TRANSNATIONALLY LINK BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND NORTH AMERICA IN HIS CLAIMS THAT THE PEACE TREATY OF 1763 GREATLY INFLUENCED THE COURSE THIS NATION, NORTH AMERICA, WOULD TAKE, AND LATER THE COURSE THAT FRANCE WOULD TAKE. BY CEDING ALL THEIR LAND TO BRITAIN AFTER THE TREATY, FRANCE HAD SUFFERED A DEVASTATING LOSS OF THE INFLUENCE IT HAD ON NORTH AMERICA. BECAUSE OF THIS LOSS TO BRITAIN, ABOUT TEN YEARS LATER THEY CAME TO THE AID OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION AGAINST BRITAIN TO TRY AND GAIN BACK SOME OF WHAT THEY LOST; WITHOUT FRANCE'S AID WE PROBABLY WOULD HAVE LOST THAT BATTLE; AND THE DEBT THAT FRANCE AQUIRED BY HELPING AMERICA IS WHAT GREATLY LED TO THEIR OWN REVOLUTION.
CALLOWAY EXPLAINS THAT FOR MORE THAN HALF A CENTURY BRITAIN AND FRANCE HAD COMPETED FOR DOMINATION IN NORTH AMERICA, AND THAT BRITAIN AND FRANCE BELIEVED THAT WHOEVER CONTROLLED THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY WOULD HAVE THE INFLUENCE NEEDED TO CONTROL THIS VAST COUNTRY. HOWEVER, THAT REGION WAS POPULATED BY THE INDIANS, AND THEY WEREN'T GOING TO JUST PAVE THE WAY FOR THE WHITE PEOPLE. FRANCE ALLIED THEMSELVES WITH THE INDIANS AND IRONICALLY PROCEDED TO FIGHT FOR THE EXACT CONTROL THE INDIANS WERE TRYING TO DEFEND. NEVERTHELESS, CALLOWAY STATES THAT THE INDIANS WERE GOING TO BACK THE ALLY MOST LIKELY TO HELP THEM SECURE THEIR GOALS. SADLY THEIR GOALS WERE NEVER REALIZED. CALLOWAY IS ABLE BRING INTO PERSPECTIVE HOW MUCH THIS SEVEN YEARS WAR THAT ENDED IN THE TREATY OF PARIS NOT ONLY GREATLY BENEFITED BRITAIN, BUT ALSO THE NEGATIVE IMPACT IT HAD ON THE NATIVE PEOPLE OF THIS COUNTRY.
"ALMOST EVERYWHERE, IT SEEMED, PEACE BROUGHT BRITISH SOLDIERS, SETTLERS, AND DOMESTICATED ANIMALS ONTO INDIAN LANDS," CALLOWAY EXPLAINS. HE GIVES A QUOTE FROM SIR WILLIAM JOHNSON, WHO PLAYED A PIVOTAL ROLE IN BRITISH IROQUOIS DIPLOMACY, "THEY [THE INDIANS] ARE GREATLY DISGUSTED AT THE GREAT THIRST WHICH WE ALL SEEM TO SHOW FOR THEIR LANDS."
CALLOWAY BRINGS PERSONAL ACCOUNTS AND EXPERIENCE INTO HIS ARGUMENT. HE IS ABLE TO BRING IN SPECIFIC PEOPLE FROM HISTORY TO MAKE THIS TIME COME ALIVE TO THE READER. CALLOWAY IS ABLE TO ACHIEVE WHAT SOME MIGHT CALL THE IMPOSSIBLE, AND MAKE HISTORY REALLY INTERESTING. IN HIS INTRODUCTION HE STATES THAT HISTORIANS HAVE LONG RECOGNIZED THE SIGNIFICANCE OF 1763 IN SETTING AMERICA ON A COURSE TO REVOLUTIONIZE, BUT THEY HAVE OFTEN NEGLECTED ACTORS AND SCENES THAT DID NOT CONTRIBUTE DIRECTLY TO THE CENTRAL PLOT, AMERICA WAS OFTEN A CROWDED AND CONFUSED STAGE. FOR ME IT'S THE DRAMA AND PERSONAL EXPERIENCE THAT MAKES THE STUDY OF HISTORY ENTICING. HE SHOWS HOW THE TREATY OF PARIS INFLUENCED THE LABORERS, ARTISANS, AND MERCHANTS OF THE COLONIES, AND HOW WHAT BRITAIN HAD EXPECTED OF THEM AFTER THE WAR BACKFIRED. "THE PEACE OF PARIS DID MORE THAN JUST SHIFT CARTOGRAPHIC REGIONS, IT SET PEOPLE AND EVENTS IN MOTION," CALLOWAY.
THIS BOOK ILLUSTRATES ALMOST STEP BY STEP THE EVENTS THAT UNFOLDED AFTER THE TREATY IN 1763 AND THE ROLE THAT BRITAIN PLAYED IN LATER INFLUENCING AND PUSHING OUR NATION INTO REBELLION. FOR ONE THE BOUNDARIES OF NORTH AMERICA WERE REDRAWN. HOWEVER WITH ALL THE NEW LAND AND POWER THAT BRITAIN ATTAINED IT DIDN'T QUITE KNOW WHAT TO DO WITH IT, OR THE PEOPLE THAT LIVED HERE. CALLOWAY IS ABLE TO SHOW HOW, AS HE STATES, THE REDRAWING OF THE POLITICAL MAP OF NORTH AMERICA IN 1763 TRANSFORMED THE CONTINENT IN WAYS THE PEACEMAKERS AND MAPMAKERS COULD BARLEY HAVE IMAGINED. THIS BOOK SHOWS THE IMPACT IT HAD ON BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND SPAIN, BUT ALSO CLAIMS NONE OF THESE NATIONS COULD HAVE REALIZED THAT IT WOULDN'T END UP BENEFITING ANY OF THEM IN THE END.
I HAVE A GREAT INTEREST IN US HISTORY, AND THIS BOOK IS ABLE TO GIVE GREAT INSIGHT INTO THE LIVES OF THE PEOPLE THAT WERE INFLUENTIAL IN THE EARLY STAGES OF SETTING UP WHAT WOULD LATER BECOME THE MOST POWERFUL NATION ON EARTH. I HAD NEVER REALLY GIVEN MUCH THOUGHT TO THE ROLE THE FIRST TREATY OF PARIS IN 1763 PLAYED IN SHAPING OUR NATION, OR THE ROLES OF BRITAIN AND FRANCE AS THEY FOUGHT FOR CONTROL OF NORTH AMERICA. IN THE EPILOGUE CALLOWAY TIES TOGETHER HOW THE VERSAILLES TREATY IN 1918 CAN BE FOUND AT THE ROOTS OF THE SECOND WORLD WAR, AND HOW THE TREATY OF 1763 CAN BE FOUND IN THE ROOTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. HISTORY REALLY CAN REPEAT ITSELF. CALLOWAY IS ABLE TO ILLISTRATE THAT SOMETIMES PEACE CAN ONLY BRING ABOUT MORE CONFLICT, AND HOW THE ROLE OF ONE NATION CAN IMPACT THE COURSE THAT ANOTHER WILL TAKE. HE STEALS A QUOTE FROM NINETEENTH CENTURY HISTORIAN FRANCIS PARKMAN, " HALF A CONTINENT CHANGED HANDS AT THE SCRATCH OF A PEN."
A TREATY THAT HAPPENED ACROSS THE ATLANTIC IN ANOTHER NATION WAS THE FIRST STEP IN THIS NATIONS CONQUEST FOR INDEPENDENCE. THIS BOOK MAKES YOU THINK THAT IF POWER HAD FALLEN INTO THE HANDS OF THE FRENCH, WOULD WE HAVE LATER REBELLED AND BECOME OUR OWN INDEPENDENT NATION. WOULD THINGS HAVE TURNED OUT THE SAME WAY? THIS BOOK MAKES YOU THINK, "WHAT IF?" IT GIVES A CLEAR AND CONCISE HISTORY OF HOW WITH THE SCRATCH OF A PEN IN 1763 IT WAS THE BEGINNING OF THE TRANSFORMATION OF NORTH AMERICA. WHAT IF THE TREATY WOULDN'T HAVE HAPPENED?


 
Monday, October 15, 2007

History, with magnificent rese


The Scratch of a Pen, by Colin G. Calloway a professor at Dartmouth College, is a wonderfully researched book about the implications of the Treaty of Paris that ended the Seven Year War between England and France (a worldwide war that was also fought on American soil and known here as the French and Indian War that lasted, strangely, 9 years). Calloway traces in a very concise fashion the ramifications of the treaty and the huge land masses in America that went back and forth between the French, the English and the Spanish. Perhaps the two highlights of the book are Professor Calloway's remarkable ability to drive home what life was like in the future United States in the pivotal year of 1763 and how the Treaty was really the beginning of the end of British rule in the U.S. - not unlike the Treaty of Versailles precipitated, to a large extent, WWII, many years later.

Perhaps the highest compliment to this edition of the Pivotal Moments in American History (Oxford University Press) came from one of its two editors, David Hackett Fisher (James M. McPherson being the other) when he wrote "The Book reads so fluently that readers may miss the many years of on research and reflection on which it rests. Every chapter makes a contribution." Terrific academic understatement. This is a great read for all U.S. historians.
 
Saturday, July 07, 2007

Good book that lays out the ma


This book describes the major changes in North America that led to the American Revolution. As clearly brought out in this book the end of the French and Indian War, with the signing of the treaty, in "the scratch of a pen", the first step was made towards the American Revolution that would start 12 years later. In the interim the "first revolution" occurred with the Indian War known as Pontiac's War, people were displaced and moved from area to area, including Indians, French, Acadians, Scots, Irish, Germans, etc. The British were bankrupt, causing them to raise taxes on the colonists. The French licked their wounds, built up their navy and gave North American to the British in the expectation that a new war would erupt in this continent that would provide them with an opportunity to get even with the British. Of course, this happened with the American Revolution. All in all, this is a good book. The only disappointment is the feable attempt to link Britain in 1763 with US in 2003. This attempt is not made with any supporting data and evidence and detracts from a book that otherwise is well thought out and researched.
 
Sunday, June 10, 2007

The most pivotal moment in ame


This book lives up to its series title. The Treaty of 1763 was the start of the American nation. The fall out of the treaty created several events that would lead to the revolution. From rising taxes to the Proclamation of 1763 the colonists were being given ample reasons to rise up. Calloway who is a Native American historian focuses on the rise of the Indians especially Pontiac's rebellion near Detroit. He provides a condemnation of Francis Parkman who virtually ignores the Indians in his account of the 7 years war. Overall if you are looking for a book that explains why the American Revolution began this is an excellent place to start and arguably the most pivotal moment in our history as it started the creation of the United States.
 
Thursday, December 14, 2006

Survey of the year 1763


Perhaps the long shadow of Francis Parkman has discouraged historians from writing about the French and Indian War (Seven Year's War). Whatever the reason it's good to see from the publication of several books that Americans are taking a renewed interest in the pre-revolutionary period when the British were triumphant and the Indians still counted as a political force.

It's past time for a thorough revision of Parkman -- who was ungenerous with the Indians although I thrilled as a young reader to his descriptions of their ferocity -- for example, the "insensate fury" of the Iroquois. Actually, the Iroquois were less insensate than they were astute.

Calloway omits the bloody details and vivid writing of Parkman but he gives us a thorough picture of what happened in the wake of the English victory over the French in North America. In particular he focuses on the frontier and the built-in conflict of American settlers, British policy, and the Indian tribes who either went down to defeat with the French or were betrayed by perfidious Albion. They made their point, however, in Pontiac's War and by clearing white settlers from the frontier. But their numbers were declining and they would soon be overwhelmed.

This is a good book about the issues of the frontier between Whites and Indians. In addition, there's a good account of the French movement from Canada to Louisiana and the Spanish rule in Florida and the trans-Mississippi.

Smallchief
 
Saturday, September 16, 2006

 
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